From Renate Lachmann’s “Mnemonic and Intertextual Aspects of Literature” ((¬†Lachmann, Renate. “Mnemonic and Intertextual Aspects of Literature.” A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies. Ed. Astrid Erll and Ansgar N√ľnning. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2010. 301-310. ))

All texts participate, repeat, and constitute acts of memory; all are products of their distancing and surpassing of precursor texts. In addition to manifest traces of other texts and obvious forms of transformation, all contain cryptic elements. All texts are stamped by the doubling of manifest and latent, whether consciously or unconsciously. All texts make use of mnemotechnic procedures, in sketching out spaces, imagines, and imagines agents. As a collection of intertexts, the text itself is a memory place; as texture, it is a memory architecture, and so forth. All texts, furthermore, are indebted to transformatory procedures that they employ either covertly or ludically and demonstratively. (305)